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The cavity preparation system focuses on the extraction of dental caries and the removal of nearby dental structures, thereby allowing the restoration of the tooth through dental reconstructive materials. Teeth can develop cavity lesions or get broken, damaged, fractured, and knocked out. When this happens, it usually leads to erosion or abrasion of the affected tooth.

During cavity preparation, the dentist uses drilling appliances and adopts extra care when handling these tools. The dentist also ensures the incorporation of relevant features when preparing the cavity to prevent forceful entry into the soft area of the tooth. The cavity preparation system is an exciting study of restorative dentistry, and here are relevant things you should know:

What Are the Objectives of Cavity Preparation?

Objectives of Cavity Preparation

  • To get rid of all malfunctions and offer the necessary protection to the surrounding area of the tooth
  • To spot the margins and ensure its safety
  • Restoration and retained tooth structure must withstand fracture against working pressure.
  • To mold the cavity and ensure that the reconstruction and tooth can resist the pressure of chewing
  • Restoration is secured
  • To permit both functional and aesthetic placement of a reconstructive device

What Is the Study on Cavity Preparation?

When cavity forms on the tooth, it results from accumulated plaque caused by bacterial organisms inside the mouth. They are typically streptococcus mutants and are responsible for breaking down carbohydrates (residues from food bits or particles) to form acidic elements.

Bacteria attack the tooth surface and gradually lead to the loss of phosphorus and calcium minerals from the tooth bone, and cause deterioration disease in the pulp. The problem usually starts on the outer layer of the tooth, with stubborn tartars that are difficult to remove. It soon progresses into the dense calcareous material, making up the tooth fiber. A cavity develops immediately after the disease moves into the tooth enamel junction.

The dentist makes it slightly more significant than the lesion during cavity preparation to eliminate the carious disease. However, it also has a contoured appearance on the tooth surface which is often more extensive than the outline of dental caries. The cavity prepared for restoration must have subtle forms to guarantee a long-lasting restorative treatment. In other words, the cavity must have a subtle withstanding and retentive form.

What Procedures Are Involved in Cavity Preparation?

What Procedures Are Involved in Cavity Preparation

Different procedures are involved in cavity preparation, depending on the class of cavities, as seen here.

Class I Caries

The Class I cavity preparation system involves fissure and pit cavities. These are the occlusal layer of the back teeth, the lingual or buccal molar deeps, and the lingual or buccal pits of the upper front tooth. First, the dentist conducts a dental examination of the tooth to determine the level of its damage before starting the cavity preparation.

During cavity removal, the lingual, buccal, and lingual grooves are still forming; complete caries extraction. The bur with a pear shape is also engaged in cavity preparation as it assists in delivering subtle movements to lingual and buccal cavity walls along the occlusal entrance.

Class II Cavities

Class II cavities take place in the proximal surfaces of the molars and premolars. They sometimes join forces with occlusal cavities in class I or occur independently. Therefore, if the cavity is present on the tooth surface as occlusal and proximal, then the dentist must prepare a double-surface cavity.

Also, in the case of Class II caries, about five proximal surfaces of premolars and molars are affected due to an extension of cavity lesions on two sides of the tooth surface or when occlusal cavities trace their way lingually and buccally toward the pulp. The dentist might also prepare different retentive devices like placement pins, especially in the case of tooth loss.

Class III Caries

Class III carious cavities happen on proximal layers of canines and incisors. Dental experts can restore class III cavities using resin-based composites. However, caries occurring on distal surfaces are not listed, as amalgam restores them. During the cavity preparation of this class, the dentist uses a tiny pear-shaped bur (tungsten carbide), especially in an extensive cavity involving a buccal and lingual surface.

Class IV Caries

Class IV cavities happen on proximal surfaces of canines and incisors but also engage incisal angles. They can occur if there is no class III cavity treatment and it progresses as incisal to affect that area involving the incisal angle. It also occurs as a class IV cavity when the lateral and maxillary area goes wrong due to an accident.

Class IV cavities can affect all canines and incisors, and their restoration usually engages all the affected tooth surfaces. The dentist prepares the cavity by involving an incisal angle primarily if a Class III carious lesion extends to the incisal angle. The dentist extracts the cavity before placing restorative grooves at the line angle of the pulp.

Class V Lesions

Class V cavities occur on the cervical labial on canine and incisor surfaces. They also happen on the molars’ and premolars’ lingual and buccal surfaces. They can happen under two circumstances; when there is a formation of a cavity or when there is a tooth loss problem as a result of erosion or abrasion.

A dentist prepares cavities on canines, incisors, and premolars, by restorative dentistry using resin components. However, restorative approaches to molars can work using components of both amalgam and resin elements. The dentist can also use resin-adjustable glass ionomer for cavity preparation and restoration as the presence of resin composite stipulates esthetic value.

Class VI Caries

Class VI caries take place on incisal areas of the front tooth or premolar and molar cusps due to the wearing down of the tooth. The cavity will appear like an attrition at the center-based tooth and surrounds itself with teeth boundaries. A dentist can restore class VI cavities using amalgam for back teeth and resin-based components for front teeth.


When dealing with tooth enamel problems, restorative dentistry through placement materials is often the greatest option as it helps restore the tooth to its natural form and improves its functions. However, the cavity preparation system differs depending on the damage type and the therapeutic procedures used.

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